irony– a technique of indicating, as through character or plot development, an intention or attitude opposite to that which is actually or ostensibly stated. (esp. in contemporary writing) a manner of organizing a work so as to give full expression to contradictory or complementary impulses, attitudes, etc., esp. as a means of indicating detachment from a subject, theme, or emotion.
pun– the humorous use of a word or phrase so as to emphasize or suggest its different meanings or applications, or the use of words that are alike or nearly alike in sound but different in meaning; a play on words.
parody– to imitate (a composition, author, etc.) for purposes of ridicule or satire. A literary or artistic work that imitates the characteristic style of an author or a work for comic effect or ridicule.
metonymy– a figure of speech that consists of the use of the name of one object or concept for that of another to which it is related, or of which it is a part, as “scepter” for “sovereignty,” or “the bottle” for “strong drink,” or “count heads (or noses)” for “count people.”
metaphor– a figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance, as in “A mighty fortress is our God.” Compare mixed metaphor, simile (def. 1). something used, or regarded as being used, to represent something else; emblem; symbol. ; a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity
allegory– a representation of an abstract or spiritual meaning through concrete or material forms; figurative treatment of one subject under the guise of another.
hyperbole– obvious and intentional exaggeration. an extravagant statement or figure of speech not intended to be taken literally, as “to wait an eternity.”
personification– the attribution of a personal nature or character to inanimate objects or abstract notions; A figure of speech in which an inanimate object or abstract idea is represented as animated, or endowed with personality
antithesis– the placing of a sentence or one of its parts against another to which it is opposed to form a balanced contrast of ideas, as in “Give me liberty or give me death.” the second sentence or part thus set in opposition, as “or give me death.”
synecdoche– A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole (as hand for sailor), the whole for a part (as the law for police officer), the specific for the general (as cutthroat for assassin), the general for the specific (as thief for pickpocket), or the material for the thing made from it (as steel for sword).